Every year, the university runs an internal conference for staff who are directly involved with supporting students who have disabilities. This is a series of two posts which aims to share my ‘take’ on the 2015 conference.
I think this must have been either the third or the fourth time I’ve been to this event. In some respects my involvement (and attendance) is slightly accidental since the conference isn’t technically open to academic staff. Instead, it’s open for those who help or advise students, or help academic module teams to make sure their modules are as accessible as they could be.
I’m very grateful that the conference organisers have allowed me to attend. In doing so, I can not only share some of the conference themes to the tutors in the London region that I help to support, but also some of my students who study H810 accessible on-line learning (OU module summary).
There were two opening keynotes: one by David Knight, and another by Tony O’Shea-Poon. Unfortunately I missed David’s presentation, since I fell asleep on the train from London and ended up in Coventry. I did, however, catch the end of Tony’s presentation. One of the things that I took away from Tony’s presentation was that there are on-going changes to rules due to government policy. Those that are affected by disablement can be the hardest hit by change.
Workshop: Improving accessibility for all
The first conference event I went to was facilitated by Adam Hyland, Atif Choudhury and Tim Blunt. They all help to run an organisation called Diversity and Ability (website), or DNA for short. DNA is a social enterprise created by and led by disabled and dyslexic learners for the sole purpose of providing support, strategies and assistance.
During the workshop we discussed how different apps could be useful and how students could gain an awareness of different study strategies. We were directed to a resources page on the DNA website which presents a summary of different types of assistive technologies. Students can uncover different ways of doing their research, composing text and answers, carrying out proof reading and taking notes during class.
It isn’t all about technology – it is also getting people involved, and helping learners to make the best use of technology that is available to them. It’s also about empowerment and building self-esteem. It’s also important to connecting different aspects (or issues) together, such as the choice and use of assistive technologies and the development of study skills. I made a note of an elephant in the room’: there are inherent anxieties that accompany working alone.
A significant part of the workshop was dedicated to looking at different tools such as Evernote and Zotero (which was recently highlighted by JISC, an organisation that supports universities). Another tool mentioned was Calibre, which I think I might have mentioned in an earlier post that was about using the Kindle for studying. There was also something called Orato, an application that allows users to select a portion of text, which is then read out loud by your computer.
Different tools can be used to do different things. Students are, of course, regularly asked to write assignments and compose essays. To help with this there are a number of composition tools, such as iThoughts (toketaWare website) and XMind, which are tablet and Mac based.
Another important task, is proofreading. One tool that could help with this is a product called Grammerly which can be built into Chrome or Firefox browsers. You might also could also use Google Docs (since iOS devices have text to speech functionality), and CereProc Voices to listen to what you have written. Apparently you can download two high quality voices: one male, another one female.
Writing and editing is all very well, but is there anything to help with the making of notes in class? Apparently, there is. We heard about Sonocent Audio Notetaker, which allows you to visualise different sections of a recording and add annotations sections, so you know where to find stuff. (I can’t help but think that this might be a really useful research tool for social scientists). Another tool is called Audionote (Luminant software).
You’ve made notes during your class and have completed all your assignments. An inevitable part of study is, of course, the exam. There are, apparently, tools that can help. The presenters the workshop mentioned a number of flash card tools, such as Studyblue, Quizlet and Anki. The one they talked most about was Quizlet, since apparently this has a text to speech feature. Interestingly, some educators have been known to create StudyBlue decks. As these products were described, I thought to myself, ‘why didn’t I think of creating these tools?’
Revision takes time, which means that time management is important. To help with this Google calendar was recommended. It was interesting to hear that Google Calendar could, apparently, be synchronised with Outlook calendars, but this isn’t anything that I have ever tried.
Students also need to organise their files and records. We were told of a tool called Alfred (Alfredapp website), a productivity tool for Macs. Other tools that were mentioned included cloud storage tools, such as Google Drive, Drop Box and One Drive.
The remainder of the session was about the referencing tool Zotero. We looked at how to download a reference template (there is one for the OU Harvard format), and apply it to web links, books for which we had the ISBN number for, books that we found on Amazon, and papers from jstor.org, a ‘a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources’.
There was a lot to take in during this session. I had heard of some of the tools and products before, but not all of them. One really useful aspect of the session was to learn how Zotero could be used, and also to be talked through the different sets of tools that students could use. A really important ‘take away’ point was that assistive technology, in whatever form it takes, is always changing. There is also great value in the ‘free’ or low cost products that exist. I began to realise that assessors (those people who offer advice for students with disabilities) have a tough job in terms of keeping up with what might be the best tools for learners.
Keynote: Autism and Asperger’s in Higher Education
The second keynote of the conference was given by Lyndsey Draper from the National Autistic Society. Lynsdey kicked off by giving us an interesting and surprising statistic – that over the last 10 years, disclosure of autism increased by 100%. Another interesting fact was that autism is the only disability in the UK that has its own specific legislation.
After briefly describing what autism and Asperger’s syndrome is, Lyndsey spoke about some different theories about it. From what I remember, I understand that there is now a consensus that there is a genetic component.
We were also given some interesting statistics: it affects 2.8 million families and 1.1% of the population. The diagnosis of women is apparently increasing, but a diagnosis can also be masked by other conditions, such as the eating disorder anorexia, for example. (I remember reading some research by Simon Baron-Cohen a couple of years ago about a potential link between anorexia and autism; the systematising and food obsession represents a behaviour trait that has parallels with some behaviours that can be observed in autism).
A further interesting point was that how differences can manifest themselves may depend very much on the environment. Lyndsey made the point that the term Asperger’s syndrome was being replaced in favour of Autistic Spectrum Disorder, or ASD, for short.
As Lyndey was talking, I remembered a phrase from a session that I went to the previous year. It was: ‘if you’ve met one person with autism, you’ve met only one person with autism’; the point being that everyone is very different.
So, what might the challenges be when it comes to higher education? Students may struggle with social communication, or, specifically, understanding the unwritten rules of communication. Smalltalk, it was said, can be considered to be illogical or complicated. Students also might find it difficult to understand the perspectives of others.
These things said, people who have ASD are known to have some key strengths: attention to detail, a methodical approach, good memory for factual information, problem solving skills, numerical skills, and are reliable and resourceful. As well as having a different way of thinking to others, another strength can be deep specialist knowledge and skills.
From the academic perspective, we need to acknowledge the significance of the social perspective. There is also an obvious necessity to provide clear unambiguous feedback (which should, of course, be offered to all students too!) In terms of adjustment, an important activity could be to try to facilitate contact between students and staff, interpret academic speaking and writing, using of checklist and offer clarifications as to what is required.
Workshop: Supporting students with autism in higher education
In addition to the keynote, Lyndsey also facilitated a workshop (which I had signed up to go to). Like her keynote presentation, it was also filled with really interesting facts. Apparently, students who have a diagnosis of autism are less likely to drop out than other students, i.e. 6.9% versus 10%.
In terms of the disabled student’s allowance (which is funding from the government to help students to study), students who have ASD may not benefit from the use of technology than other groups of students with disabilities. Instead, students with ASD benefit from mentors and study support.
In the workshop, we were again given a little bit of history. We were told about Kanner or ‘classic’ Autism, and Asperger’s syndrome, and the differences between them. We were then asked about our perceptions and understandings. A key phrase I noted in my notebook was: ‘everyone is completely different’, and that what is ‘good practice for autism is good practice for everyone’.
In terms of training: clarify roles, such as turn taking and eye contact. We were offered a challenge: ‘can you imagine how much effort it would be to continually control eye contact all day?’ There is also the challenge of metaphor and idiom.
Other issues that can emerge include anxiety, depression, perfectionism, single focus or attention on something. Some students might need prompts on how best to manage their own time.
It was time for an activity. We were asked a question: what difficulties might students have and what strategies might be used to overcome them? On our table we chatted about getting students to talk to each other, the challenge of choosing a module, and the ambiguities of language.
A number of points were mentioned during a plenary discussion. These were the importance of clear feedback and the need to be consistent and specific, the sharing of good practice, and how some students may need transition support between different institutions and levels of study. At the end of the session we were directed to the National Autistic Society website, should we need more information about anything.
Keynote: Education for a new me
Steve McNeice was once a triathlete. He took us back to a day when everything in his life changed. He was out on a swim when he realised that he wasn’t very well. He told us that he had acquired a profoundly serious bacterial infection. He went to hospital and fell into a coma. He woke up seven weeks later, with both legs amputated above the knee. Apparently 95% of double above knee amputees don’t walk. Seventeen months later, Steve told us that he walked out of the hospital.
I won’t even try to do justice to Steve’s presentation and the effect that it had, both on myself and others who were in the room. Here was someone who was talking about how his life had changed dramatically. He went from being active and able bodied, to having to learn how to walk again. Despite all this, and as he told us his story, he exuded positivity and good humour.
Apparently some people who use prostetic legs can use up to 300% more energy than able bodied people. As he talked, he walked up and down at the front of the presentation room. ‘I swim three times a week, and you see all kinds of people at the pool.’ Steve said. ‘Some of them look and they think, ‘oh, what a shame’, and then I lap them’.
He told us about the seemingly innocuous challenges of going down stairs, navigating escalators and stepping over things. All these activities that so many of us take for granted, Steve had to re-learn how to do them. He shows us numerous video clips where he fell over, negotiating a hill.
‘While I was going through rehab, I was studying for a degree’, he told us. He studied German. A part of his illness meant that he became deaf in one ear, and partially lost hearing in another. An adjustment was the request to sit on a certain side of a room. One thing that he said he needed to work on was listening: so, he studied German.
‘I used the OU to learn about my condition. I studied T307, designing for a sustainable future. I designed some sockets for my prostetic limb’. He told us that he took ownership of his lifelong condition by setting lots of educational goals.
Through these OU conferences, I’ve come to seen that having a disability can open doors to new experiences, rather than close them. Steve told us that he has contributed to events at the house of commons and is a member of the all-party parliamentary limb loss group.
He told us that he is now studying Italian. He also lectures at different universities to give something back to physiotherapists, the occupation that offered him so much help. I also noted down the following words: ‘rehabilitation is an on-going process, and something could change at any point’.
Like so many of us at the talk, I was struck by his spirit of determination. I also took away the thought that, perhaps, I ought to do slightly more to ‘give back’ to the profession that has tried to help me with my own condition or situation. His talk also emphasised the transformative effect of education. I couldn’t help but worry that the increase in higher fees this might potentially prevent or deter some students from studying modules and subject that may influence their lives for the better.