Inside the Black Box by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam (1998)
My intention with this notes is to qualifiy what I am picking out from what I learn as I go along. ASo watch out, I'll be back several times to adjust what I've put here with examples and reflection.
Raising stands of learning that are achieved through school education. (p.1)
System engineer = black box and inputs to deliver outputs.
What is happening
Some things counter-productive
Something policy-makers can do?
Teaching and learning have to be interactive (p.2)
Feedback to modify the activities
Effect size 0.4 = one grade at GCSE
Improved formative assessment helps the (so-called) low attempt more than the rest.
Frequent assessment feedback helps both groups enhance their learning (Fuchs et al, 1997) Effects of Task Focused Goals on Low Achieving Students. (p.5)
Actively involved (p.5)
Requires guidance on how work can be improved.
Advice not grades are needed (p.6)
Personal improvement is more important than setting one against another with grades.
Vs. students getting into the habit of ‘just getting by’. (p.8)
NOTE :> The ultimate use of assessment information which is elicited in order to improve learning is the pupil.
Vs. - ‘the overall result’ (with grades/gold stars) ‘is to enhance the frequency and the extent of under-achievement’.
A culture of success
A belief that all can achieve
NOTE:> Feedback to any pupil should be about the particular qualities of his or her work, with advice on what he or she can do to improve, and should avoid with other pupils.
Formative assessment is enhanced through self- and peer- assessment.
Pupils are honest in assessing themselves and others.
Their own assessments become an object of discussion with their teachers and with one another. (p.10)
The desired goal
A way to close the gap (Sadler, 1989) Formative Assessment and the design of instructional systems (Instructional science) 18 pp 119-144
NOTE : > For formative assessment to be productive, pupils should be trained in self-assessment so that they can understand the main purpose of their learning and thereby grasp what they need to do to achieve.
Careful scrutiny of the main components of a teaching plan. As the argument develops it becomes clear that instruction and formative assessment are indivisible.
NOTE : > Opportunities for pupils to express their understanding should be designed into any piece of teaching for this will initiate the interaction whereby formative assessment aids learning. (p.11)
The dialogue between pupils and a teacher should be thoughtful, reflective, focused to evoke and explore understanding, and conducted so that all pupils have an opportunity to think and to express their ideas.
Untapped potential not fixed IQ (p.14)
To take new practices on board what teachers ‘need is a variety of living examples of implementation, by teachers with whom they can identify and from whom they can both desire conviction and confidence that they can do better, and see concrete examples of what doing better means in practice. (p.16)
Drawing > Median > via swimming and making a jigsaw > full time in the West for creativity.
Facts or thinking