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Christopher Douce

Preparing to study TM111 and TM112

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Edited by Christopher Douce, Sunday, 25 Feb 2024, 10:29

Introduction to computing and information technology 1 and Introduction to computing and information technology 2   are two important modules for students studying for a degree in Computing and IT, and related qualifications. When studied together, they are the equivalent of half a first year of degree level study. (A whole year of study being 120 points of academic credit, and each of these module accounts for 30 credits each).

Level one modules are all about acquiring knowledge and skills that are useful for second and third level (or year) studies, where the scores gained from modules contribute towards a degree classification.

Whilst these two modules are all about skills development, before you start studying either TM111 or TM112 there are some things you can do to give you the best chance of doing well. One of those things is to find some time to work through a number of free Open Learn short courses, and some accompanying study skills materials.

What follows is a summary of modules that could help you to prepare for TM111 and TM112 study. The summaries that are provided are taken directly from each OpenLearn course.

First steps

These first two courses can help you to position yourself in relation to your studies. One course introduces you to what it means to be a distance learner, and the other encourages you to think about your approach to learning and develop your learning skills. When you’re a distance learner, a lot of your study is down to you.

Am I ready to be a distance learner?

Summary: “Distance learning can open up opportunities for study. You might have not studied for a while, you might be returning to education, or you might not have had the chance to study at a higher level before. This free course, Am I ready to be a distance learner?, will help to boost your confidence. You'll explore useful skills so you can discover how ready you are to study and how to develop your study skills in six steps to become a successful distance learner.”

Succeed with learning

Summary: “Succeed with learning is an informal, introductory course for people who want to feel more confident about their learning skills. This free badged course builds on your own qualities, knowledge and skills to develop a deeper understanding of the nature of learning and of your own potential. It introduces some core ideas about learning and academic study, and some planning tools to enable you to take the next step with confidence.”

Courses useful to Computing and IT students

The courses that are introduced in this section can be useful for Computing and IT students. To begin, a section of TM112 has found its way into OpenLearn through this short course: introducing computing and IT. This course touches on a topic called computational thinking, which is all about what it means think algorithmically and how to break problems down into smaller components. This leads onto a short course about coding. Since the universe of computers is numerical, there are three courses which relate to mathematics and working with numbers.

Introducing computing and IT

Summary: “This free course, introducing computing and IT, provides a general overview of how digital technologies have come to dominate virtually every aspect of the modern world and some guidance on how to prepare for this digital life. It raises awareness of the importance of data security and online safety.”

Introduction to computational thinking

Summary: “You will learn about algorithms and abstraction in this free course, Introduction to computational thinking, and encounter some applications of computational thinking in various disciplines, ranging from biology and physics to economics and sport science.”

Simple coding

Summary: “Have you ever wanted to try out simple coding? Want to understand the basics of what it entails? This course introduces you to the skills, concepts and jargon of coding.” This course will help you to: “use programming language Python to produce code”, “understand the sequences of instructions in Python programmes”, and “understand repetition in Python programming language”. Python being the programming language used in TM112.

Another version of this useful resource is available through the link Simple Coding: An Introduction. An interesting element of this resource is that you are able to code directly within a web page. Instructions are presented next to spaces to carry out coding, allowing you to get immediate feedback.

Succeed with maths: part 1

Summary: “Does maths feel like a bit of a mystery to you? Are you looking to improve your confidence in using maths in a variety of everyday situations? If so, this free course, Succeed with maths: part 1, is for you. Beginning with the very foundations of maths, this course will start by looking at how numbers are put together, before guiding you through how to use percentages, fractions and negative numbers.”

Succeed with maths: part 2

Summary: “Following on from Succeed with maths: part 1, this free badged course will continue to develop your mathematical knowledge and skills using everyday examples. The course will guide you through measurement, scientific notation (based upon powers of 10) and roots of numbers, shapes and how to calculate their properties before finally turning to how to construct and read from tables, charts and graphs.”

Numbers, units and arithmetic

Summary: “Do fractions and decimals make you apprehensive about maths? Do you lack confidence in dealing with numbers? If so, then this free course, Numbers, units and arithmetic, is for you. The course will explain the basics of working with positive and negative numbers and how to multiply and divide with fractions and decimals.”

Study skills courses

Not only do you gain knowledge by studying for a degree, you also gain a set of graduate skills. These can include: problem solving skills, critical thinking skills, analysis skills, note taking skills, reading skills, writing skills, and what it means to contribute to academic discussions and debates. An important part of being a student within a discipline is that you learn how to learn. What follows are a set of short courses that help to develop your skills. 

Essay and report writing skills

Summary: “Writing reports and assignments can be a daunting prospect. Learn how to interpret questions and how to plan, structure and write your assignment or report. This free course, Essay and report writing skills, is designed to help you develop the skills you need to write effectively for academic purposes.”

Extending and developing your thinking skills

Summary: “Diagrams, mind-maps, tables, graphs, time lines, flow charts, sequence diagrams, decision trees: all can be used to organise thought. This free course, Extending and developing your thinking skills, will introduce you to a variety of thinking skills. Asking and answering questions is at the heart of high-quality thinking.”

Developing good academic practice

Summary: “Developing good academic practice, is intended to help you develop good academic practices in your studies and when producing assignments and completing assessments. Although designed as a course to work through, the content can also be used to dip in and out of, if you feel you need to improve your skills in a particular area.”

All my own work: exploring academic integrity

Summary: “The aim of this short course is to help you explore the issues around producing your own work for academic purposes. This course goes beyond the ‘nuts and bolts’ of referencing styles to enable you to understand what is meant by ‘good academic conduct’ and to explore why it is so important. Along the way, you will consider how you can avoid common pitfalls and difficulties.”

Study skills pages

In addition to these study skills courses, there are a set of useful study skills webpages that are worth exploring.

The Study skills: one-minute tips pages are described as a “series of one-minute animations exploring revision tips, beating procrastination, what’s involved in a remote exam and other study skills”. The Core skills pages summarise some useful topics.

TM111 and TM112 students may find the following resources helpful:

If you are a current OU student, you can access a set of useful study booklets, including a textbook called The Good Study Guide which offers some really helpful advice.

Other resources

OpenLearn isn’t the only useful resource for Computing and IT students. Another useful resource is the Learn to program in Python page from the Raspberry Pi foundationA useful resource is W3Schools which provide a Python Introduction page.

Learning to code isn’t easy. To help students who were learning M250 Object-oriented programming I prepared the following blog article: Object-oriented programming: seven tips. Although I wrote these tips whilst thinking of the Java programming language, they also apply to the languages used in TM111 and TM112.

Our TM112 module team chair has also identified the following Python resources that may be helpful:

Whilst all these resources can be useful to help you to prepare for TM111 and TM112, there is another way to find your way to study, and that is through something called an access module. An access module not only helps you to develop your skills, it also enables you to get a feel of what university study feels like. If you are draw towards STEM disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), which includes Computing and IT, you might want to have a look at the Science, technology and maths Access module.

Reflections

Although all the introductory courses that I’ve mentioned here are free to access, you can also gain something tangible from them; free doesn’t necessarily mean without value. After completing each course you can download a certificate of participation. You can, of course, mention each course on your CV. Although they are not a formal qualification, they can evidence an interest and a commitment to learning.

One final thing to bear in mind is this: study isn’t easy. It can be difficult, and it can be uncomfortable. It can be uncomfortable since it can be transformative in the sense that it can change how you see things. It can also take a lot of time, and time can sometimes be hard to find. I have tutored on a second level programming module, and I currently tutor on a third level software engineering module. Programming didn’t come easy to me. I puzzled over a lot of programming problems. I spent a lot of time being frustrated. I spent a lot of time feeling uncomfortable. When you enrol on a module, course, or programme, you’re not just ‘taking a module’, you’re participating in a process.

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to the OpenLearn team who have put together a great set of resources. I would also like to thank Nigel Gibson, module chair of the ‘mighty’ TM111 module, for his suggestion to look to OpenLearn. I would also like to thank Paul Piwek, production and presentation chair of TM112 for his help and for sharing further useful resources, and Michel Wermelinger for his Simple Coding resource.

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Christopher Douce

Curriculum

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Edited by Christopher Douce, Sunday, 14 May 2023, 12:08

On 9 May 23, I attended a staff development event that had the title “Our STEM curriculum” which was presented by David Morse, Associate Dean for Curriculum, Faculty of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics. 

I must admit that I was expecting a very different session to the one that I attended. I was expecting something about curriculum accessibility. Instead, I had stumbled into what appeared to a briefing about the STEM curriculum.

What follows is a set of notes that I’ve taken from this session which I’ve moulded into a summary about different types of curricula that the university offers. Although the focus on this blog is, of course, STEM curricula, there will, of course, be similarities and differences between what happens in other faculties and institutions. Hopefully what follows will be a useful summary for anyone who is trying to understand what curriculum is all about.

How everything works

There are quite a few terms to understand: modules, qualifications, and credits. You gain credits by studying modules, and modules contribute towards qualifications. A degree is a qualification, as is a certificate and diploma. There are undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications.

The most familiar qualification is the undergraduate degree. To really understand what is meant by curriculum it is worth spending a couple of minutes to unpick what it comprises:

A full-time three year undergraduate degree is 360 academic credits.

Every year, a full time student will be studying 120 worth of modules.

Students studying at half time study intensity will, of course, study modules worth 60 credits.

In the OU, modules are either 30 or 60 credits depending on the faculty, and the module. In the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, the modules are typically 60 credits. In STEM, they are often 30 credits. In some cases, students can study one 30 credit module after another.

Other institutions might have different sizes of modules. I’ve seen modules that are 15 credits, 20 credits or 45 credits. Some really bit postgraduate modules might be even 90 credits.

One credit is typically considered to be 10 hours of study. The term ‘study’ can refer to a whole set of different activities: it can refer to attending tutorials, reading learning materials, completing study tasks, interacting with fellow students, and completing assessments. The exact make-up of that time will depend on the module.

With 10 hours of study per credit, this means that a 60 credit module means 600 hours’ worth of study. If we assume a typical working day is 7.5 hours, this can be translated to 80 days of study time.

A traditional academic term lasts 9 months from October until June, but within this period there are the Christmas and Easter holidays, which means a break of4 weeks. This means there are 8 months of study time for full time students.

120 credits of full time study means, of course, 1,200 hours. Dividing this by 7.5 hours per day gives us 160 days of study time. Dividing this by 5 gives us 32 week of study time per year. Dividing this by 4 weeks in a month gives us exactly 8 months, which means that everything fits.

Modules are broadly categorised in terms of level, which corresponds to the year of study at a face-to-face university. A module that has the number 2 as the second number is a second year module. I’ll cover more about this a bit later.

Now that we’ve figured out undergraduate degrees, let’s turn our attention to postgraduate master’s degrees. A one year master’s degree at a face-to-face university typically takes 12 months rather than 9 months, usually running between September to September. This means there is more to study. MSc and MA degrees typically require 180 credits. When studying part time, OU students typically study for them over a three year period.

All this is enough to make our head hurt. When we look into the particulars of individual degrees and qualifications, we find a whole lot more detail.

What follows is an edited set of STEM specific notes that I made from the session. I’ve taken the liberty of adding a number of sections which shares a bit more context.

Access modules

The first elements of curricula which some students may encounter are the university’s access modules. These modules are presented as an introduction to distance learning and aim to offer students a broad overview of a subject. There are four modules, one for each faculty, each taking up to 30 weeks.

The STEM access module is split into three sections (or blocks) which have the subjects: life, water and home. The first block addresses biology and ecology, the second adopts a practical perspective, and the third begins to address design, engineering and computing.

These access modules don’t attract academic credit. They do, however, help students to gain an understanding of what is involved with university level study. Students will gain experience of writing and submitting assignments, and will receive significant help and guidance from a tutor.

Undergraduate qualifications

The faculty offers a number of qualifications: foundation degrees, undergraduate certificates, undergraduate diplomas, first degrees, postgraduate certificates and diplomas and taught higher degrees. The most popular is the first degree.

The most popular qualification in STEM is the Computing and IT BSc (Q62), followed by Natural Sciences degree (Q64), and then the Certificate in HE in Computing and IT (T12). The popularity of the certificate in Computing and IT might be explained that certificates in HE (CertHE) and diplomas (DipHE) are known as milestone qualifications, which means that students can gain these qualifications as they accumulate credit for an undergraduate degree.

The faculty also offers a number of foundation degrees, such as the Foundation Degree in Computing and IT Practice (X15). Rather than being 360 credits, these qualifications are 240 credits and cover stages 1 and 2, an contains a compulsory work-based learning element.

Students can also use something called credit transfer. There is an increasing number of students who have studied at another university and convert their foundation degree to an OU BA or BSc by using the credit transfer service. This is sometimes called a top up degree.

Most of the degrees and qualifications that the university has are what are called named degrees, which means a degree that is specifically linked to a particular subject or discipline. Named degrees are relatively new to the OU. They were introduced in their current form to enable students to apply for student loans which are available for part time study. Loans are only available to students who are studying a named degree.

Each school within a faculty ‘owns’ the qualifications that are aligned to their subject area. There are, of course, some qualifications which cross schools and faculties. A popular choice is a joint honours qualification. An example of this is the Computing and IT degree with a second subject. With this qualification, students can study Computing with Business, Design, Mathematics, Psychology, Statistics and Electrical Engineering. 

It is also worth mentioning an undergraduate qualification called the Open Degree. The Open Degree predates the introduction of the named degree. It enables students to create their own degree from any undergraduate module. It is described as follows: the Open degree “allows you to bring together different areas of study in a completely flexible way to develop knowledge and skills. … Choose from over 250 modules across 16 subject areas, to create a bespoke qualification to match your interests”. Returning to the topic of credits, students must study 360 worth of academic credit, in three groups of 120 credits, which correspond to each of the levels.

A variation of the Open degree in the STEM faculty is the Combined STEM degree where students can create their own STEM degree from the different STEM modules that the university offers. Within this qualification, there are corresponding diplomas and certificates.

Undergraduate degree classifications

In keeping with all other higher education institutions (HEIs), when a student gains their OU degree, it is assigned a classification which reflects their performance. The highest category is a first, followed by an upper second (2:1) or a lower second (2:2), or third class.

Also in keeping with other HEIs, the first level of study is all about skills development. Although the first level modules do not officially contribute to a degree classification, level 1 modules can have two overall scores: distinction, or pass. To get a distinction, students must gain an overall score of 85%, as defined by a module’s tuition strategy. This said, the exact boundary for a distinction can be slightly adjusted by a module results panel to ensure that results are awarded in a way that is consistent between different module presentations. More information about what is meant by assignment scores, module results and overall grades is available through the university help centre. 

Results from level 2 and level 3 modules (modules that have the numbers 2 and 3 as the first numbers in the module code) do contribute to a degree classification. Module results are presented in terms of grades, ranging from grade 1 (which is a distinction) through to grade 4 (which is a bare pass). The module result grades are then combined with each other to calculate a student’s degree classification. More information about the algorithm used to calculate a degree classification is also available through the university help centre.

Postgraduate qualifications

Like the undergraduate qualification, the postgraduate master’s qualifications also contain milestone qualifications which are, of course, qualifications in their own right. As mentioned earlier, a master’s degree is gained through 180 credits of study. Along with way, students can gain a postgraduate certificate, PGCert through 60 credits of study, or a postgraduate diploma, a PGDip through 120 credits of study.

The classification scheme for postgraduate qualifications are different to undergraduate qualifications. There are three different results for master’s degrees: distinction, merit, and pass. In keeping with postgraduate qualifications in other institutions, the pass mark for modules is 50%. For undergraduate modules, the pass mark is 40%.

Higher degrees, such as doctorates and MPhil qualifications are not discussed here. Further information about these qualifications are available in another blog about doctoral study.

Apprenticeships

The OU also offers a number of degree apprenticeshipsThe degree apprenticeships share a similarity with foundation degrees. Both have a compulsory-work based learning element, but with an important difference: an apprenticeship is essentially a job role, with an aspect of study attached to it. The study is aligned with the job role. Apprentices have access to module tutors, and to practice tutors. The role of the practice tutor is to help the apprentices relates their formal academic study with their work-based learning, and carry out regular reviews to evidence their learning.

The funding for apprenticeship study comes from the apprenticeship levy, which all employers of a certain size have to pay from their salary bill. Employers can gain back the value of the levy by encouraging some of their employees to participate in a degree apprenticeship scheme.

Unlike many of the other qualifications, the degree apprenticeship standards are defined by external organisation in conjunction with employers rather than the qualifications being owned by an academic school. Apprenticeship schemes are nation specific. In England, degree apprentices are defined by the Institute for Apprenticeships and Technical Education with other bodies for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

In STEM, there are two degree apprenticeships; a Digital and Technology solutions (DTS) qualification, and a postgraduate Systems Thinking Practitioner qualification.

Higher Technical Qualifications

Higher Technical Qualifications follow the roughly the same standard as the apprenticeship qualifications. Unlike the degree apprenticeships, these qualifications do not have the compulsory work-based learning component or have the requirement for students to be connected with an employer.

In STEM, there are two Higher Technical Qualifications, which are available in England only: one that relates to Network Engineering (W19) and another about Software Development (W20). Students studying these qualification also have the potential to use their credit from the constituent OU modules on different qualifications, if they wish to further their studies.

Microcredentials

In the OU, typical modules are either 30 or 60 credits. OU microcredentials, however, can be thought as short courses (or modules) which run between 10 and 12 weeks which attract either 10 or 15 of academic credits. In some cases, these bits of academic credit can be ‘boxed’ together into a larger unit, and can be brought into a larger qualification through credit transfer, if the learning outcomes of the microcredentials are compatible.

Microcredentials aim to appeal to a different group of students: those who are interested in upskilling, or developing an evidenced continuing professional development (CPD) portfolio. This emphasis on CPD can be seen through the computing microcredentials, which currently draw on materials from industrial providers, such as Cisco.

Microcredentials differ from other modules in the sense that students are not provided a tutor. Instead, students have to carry out self-directed learning. Technology also plays an important role in the learning experience. At the time of writing OU microcredentials are delivered through FutureLearn, a MOOC provider, which offers a social learning approach. 

Time will tell whether microcredentials will become a bigger element of the university’s portfolio of curriculum. A personal view is that they are useful for some disciplines and for some groups of students, but may not work for others. It is interesting to note that are international initiatives that support the development of microcredentials (Microcredentials.EU) and accompanying policies.

Other types of curricula

As well as formal qualifications and modules, there is also a site called OpenLearn which shares free online courses. Some of the courses delivered through OpenLearni are known as Badged Open Courses (BOCs). This means when a student completes an OpenLearn course, they are eligible to get a digital badge, and download a certificate of completion. Learners can highlight the completion of these BOCs by mentioning them on CVs and job applications. If OpenLearn learners are also OU students, completion of OpenLearn modules will also appear on their student record, which are visible to students.

The OpenLearn resources that are summarised within this section can also be called Open Educational Resources (OERs), which is a category of freely available resources which can be used and shared by educators.

There are quite a few OpenLearn courses and resources which can be useful to tutors. There are courses that enable students to gain an understanding about what is involved with online and OU study. Since a percentage of OU modules are shared through OpenLearn, there are also courses that enable students to get a flavour about what they will be studying if they are to formally enrol. Also, there are courses which can be taken as continuing professional development modules for tutors.

What follows is a sample of some of the materials that are available.

Courses about learning to study

Here are some courses that might be useful to share with students who are considering OU study, or are new to OU study:

The following courses would be helpful for students considering postgraduate study:

Courses that offer introductions to formal study

Here are some notable courses from other disciplines:

Courses that help with tutoring and teaching

The following courses can offer CPD for tutors, and help learners to gain more of an understanding of what is involved with OU teaching and learning:

STEM facts and figures

During this session, David shared some facts and figures about the STEM faculty. For 2021 and 2022, there were 47k students registered on STEM modules. Out of these, 3.5k students completed a qualification, which represents roughly 19% of all OU students graduating. Although there are three faculties, approximately a third of students graduate with an Open degree.

Out of these students, 76% of students work either part-time or full time. 69% of undergraduate students had no previous HE qualifications. This highlights that the transfer of academic credit is playing an important role in the journey for some students.

As mentioned earlier, the Q62 computing qualification is the most popular undergraduate programme offered by the faculty. In recent years there has been a decline in students registering for Q62, but there has been an increase in the number of students registering for the cyber security qualification. In terms of postgraduate study, the Mathematics MSc is the largest MSc within the faculty.

Reflections

I was initially a bit grumpy when I realised that this continuing professional development session was offering a sketch about curriculum, rather than being about accessibility. A key learning point here is: make sure you read the event description carefully.

Sometimes it’s useful to stick with things. In this case, the summary of all the different qualifications that are provided by the faculty was a helpful reminder. I also took the opportunity to really figure out the notion of academic credit, and how it relates to modules, qualifications and the academic year. 

I’ve taken the opportunity to add two complementary sections: a bit about access modules (which wasn’t really covered during the session), and a section about degree classifications. Everything is, of course, linked to each other: qualifications are linked to modules, which are linked to schools, which are liked to disciplines.

There are, of course, bits of curriculum that I haven’t mentioned. Some years ago, there used to be a number of short courses, some of which were credit bearing, but there is only one short course is run by the faculty: a digital photography course. There is also something called ‘open box’ modules, where bits of external academic credit can used to contribute to an OU qualification.

Curriculum is subject to continual change. Its structure is affected by a number of variables: academic and cultural trends, innovations in pedagogy and technology, and wider political changes, such as changes to funding. It is interesting to see the extent to which freely available materials complement formal credit bearing materials. Knowing about what free resources are available has the potential to make a real difference to the student experience.

Acknowledgements

Thanks are extended to David Morse for running such a thorough session.

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Christopher Douce

Using OpenLearn resources with Moodle

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Edited by Christopher Douce, Monday, 29 Apr 2019, 13:38

OpenLearn logo

One of the things that we need to do in the EU4ALL project is to create a prototype. To show the operation of a prototype, we need to show how content can be personalised. To show content personalisation happening we need some content. Luckily, the OpenLearn project is at hand to provide some Open Educational Resources (wikipedia) that we may be able to use.

The OpenLearn project provides learning materials in a number of formats. These formats range from native OU XML files, raw HTML files, IMS content packages through to RSS feeds and Moodle backup formats. This post is all about finding the most effective way to transfer OpenLearn to Moodle (and uncovering the best approach to use for on-going development work).

Using a Moodle Course Backup

The sample content that I'm going to use is a learning package about the Forth Road bridge (openlearn). This learning package (for want of a better term) is interesting since it contains a couple of different resources, including a video, a transcript in the form of a PDF file and some HTML pages.

In terms of loading the package to Moodle, I thought the easiest route would be to import the backup file type. The course backup facility allows Moodle users to make copies of entire courses (and their setup) for safe keeping. If inadvertent changes are made, a user then has the possibility of restoring (Moodle documentation) a course to your Moodle installation.

Others at the OU have blogged about similar issues, providing a more comprehensive description about how to setup an EEE netbook to allow users to view the OpenLearn material whilst on the move. This post takes (more or less) a similar approach, but focuses more on the different OpenLearn filetypes.

After downloading an OpenLearn Moodle backup course, I logged into Moodle as an administrator then clicked around on the 'course' menu options to see what I could find. It wasn't immediately clear what to do, so I went to the documentation for help. I found quite a few things.

I discovered that you needed to use the Course administration block. But this could be only accessed from within a course. It was apparent that to import a course, I needed to also create one.

After creating an empty course (using all the default settings), the course administration block duly appeared. From faint memories of this process, having played with this part of Moodle a couple of years ago I remember that restore was a two step process: first you had to upload the backup file, then you had to click on a restore link to start the backup process.

After trying to upload my backup package I was presented with a message that read 'a required parameter (id) was missing' ('what on earth does this mean?' I wondered). I then noticed that the size of my OpenLearn zip file was bigger (because it contained a video) than maximum supported upload file size in Moodle. Obviously I need to change a setting somewhere.

The first place that I looked was the Moodle system configuration file called config.php, but this didn't tell me much. I then delved into the area of my computer that contained the PHP installation and found a file called php.ini.

After a quick search, I discovered two places which might explain the maximum file size that Moodle has told me about. I subsequently make a change to the upload_max_filesize variable, setting it to 32MB, restarted my web server and then refreshed my browser. As if by magic, the maximum file size that Moodle allows has changed.

When trying the upload again, everything seemed to work okay (but I should say that the error message that I was presented with does need some attention).

When the upload from local file store to a Moodle folder was completed, I could see an adjacent 'Restore' button which I clicked. I was then presented with a question: 'Later in this process you will have a choice of adding this backup to an existing course or creating a completely new course – do you want to continue?' In my situation I initially want to do the latter operation, but I'm forced to do the former. I click yes to continue.

I was then presented with a list of actions that have been carried out: creating temporary structure, deleting old data etc, with no button or option to click on afterwards when it appears that everything has finished. Obviously things were not working as they should be. I carried out a further web search for answers.

I discovered the following from the Moodle backup and restore FAQ: 'Attempting to restore a course to an older version of Moodle than the one the course was backed up on can result in the restore process failing to complete'.

So, what versions am I using, and what version is the OpenLearn backup software provided in? To find the version of your Moodle installation, you have to go to the site administration menu (when logged in as an administrator), and click on Environment. I soon discover that I was using version 1.9+. I extract the contents of the OpenLearn Moodle Backup file and discover that it might be version 1.9, according to the first set of lines in an XML file that I discover. It seems I might be in a spot of trouble.

Getting Moodle Restore working

All was not lost, however. After some random searches I found a forum discussion. Fred has a suggestion: change a more recent programming file to an older version (which can be downloaded from the Moodle code repository). I changed the name of my 'restorelib.php' to 'backup restorelib.php' and download the version he suggests.

After replacing the file and restarting the restore process, magic begins to happen and messages are displayed on the screen. I'm then presented with a course restore screen, where a drop down box has the options: restore to new course (what I wanted to do initially), existing course deleting it first, existing course adding data to it. I chose 'existing course deleting it first', carelessly ignore everything else (which has been automatically ticked), and faithfully click on continue. I'm then presented with a list of courses to overwrite (I was surprised by this option since I thought I was automatically going to overwrite the course from where I clicked the 'restore' option through). Ignoring the warning, 'this process can take a long time', I clicked on 'restore this course now!'

4815233102_2dd79fab23.jpg

It didn't take a long time, and a minute or so later, I could happily browse through (and edit) my newly imported OpenLearn courses. Fred saved the day!

But what of the other OpenLearn file options? I'll steer clear of the 'Unit Content XML', the 'OU XML Package' and IMS Common Cartridge for now and instead focus on some of the others.

IMS Content Package

IMS publishes specifications that aim to make learning technology systems interoperate with each other. One of the specifications that they have publishes is the content package (CP). A CP is essentially a bunch of files which are contained with a zip file. In the zip file there is something called a manifest file. This manifest file is, more or less, like a table of contents, when is read by a VLE/LMS like Moodle.

In Moodle, a CP can be a resource (interactive components are called activities). I create a new course, set a course to have a topic format, and choose to upload my CP to the first topic. When this is done, I browse to the newly added resource and Moodle tells me that it is about to deploy the CP (meaning, uncompress its contents and read the table of contents file). When complete, I can now navigate through the different pages of my material.

4815233182_9a3fe65ec5.jpg

One of the differences between this format and the Moodle format is that the content is a lot more difficult to change. You have to use special tools, such as Reload to edit the manifest file, and HTML editors (and other similar tools) to change the contents of individual pages. Also, there is no direct way to include VLE supported interactive tools such as Wikis, blogs or on-line discussion forums in the middle of the material other than using the navigation mechanisms that the VLE provides (this will hopefully become a bit clearer later on).

SCORM

SCORM is an industry standard for the sharing of e-learning materials. SCORM makes use of IMS content packaging and defines an interface between the learning material and the VLE that is used to present the material.

This interface allows the VLE to record information such as whether the user has viewed all the pages of a SCORM resource, store interaction state to the VLE (such as answers for formative questions) and retrieve information from the VLE, such as the name of the current user (to allow partial customisation of a learning experience).

IMS content packages created by OpenLearn can also be viewed using the Moodle SCORM player (but I don't know if there are any problems doing this!).

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SCORM originated from a US government initiative called Advanced Distributed Learning (wikipedia). As a result, it reflects its training origins. Like IMS CP, it does not directly support the inclusion of interactive activities that are provided by a VLE (other than the activities that are contained within the boundaries of a content package).

In Moodle, there are two ways to present SCORM resources. The first, as presented above, is to add it as an 'activity'. The other way is to create a course that has a SCORM format. Rather than having individual weeks or topics, a single SCORM occupies centre stage. Surrounding the centre, it is possible to create Moodle supported activities, such as forums. Here I have create a Moodle wiki, allowing consumers of the OpenLearn course to share links about bridge engineering (!), for example.

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The way that Moodle presents IMS packages and SCORM objects (or SCOs – sharable content objects) are similar, but subtly different, making me wonder about the underlying source code. When I have time I'll explore the code development history to see whether they are related in any way.

Plain Zip

One of the simplest formats that OpenLearn supports is called plain zip.

Unzipping a 'plain zip' file reveals all the resources for a course (images, video and transcripts), along with two types of HTML file: an index file (which is similar to the Moodle course summary screen that was presented earlier), and set of content pages. The content pages themselves have their own navigation links, i.e. page 1 is connected to page 2 and so on. SCORM, on the other hand, provides its own mechanism to navigate between resource pages, generated by the information contained within a manifest file.

Two other things are provided in the plan zip package: a creative commons deed (describing licencing terms), and a formatting stylesheet. If you want, you can change the font and the colours of the content pages by changing the stylesheet. The action of double-clicking on any of the HTML files within this package displays the material directly in a browser.

So, how can a plain zip OpenLearn package be used in Moodle? Is it possible?

The answer is that it is possible, and it's quite easy, but the end result is obviously not as 'integrated' as the other approaches. First of all, I create a new course. I give my course an obvious name and set it to use the 'topics' format. Then I transfer my OpenLearn zip package to Moodle. To do this, I click on the Files menu (from administration block whilst logged in as an administrator), and upload the zip file to the course (each course has its own file area). When the file has been uploaded, I unzip the zip file. After pressing the course edit button, I can now add a link.

From the resource menu I click on 'link to a file or website'. Here I select 4ROAD_1_section0.html. This is the first content file in a sequence of four. It is the file that presents the learning objectives to a learner.

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I turn editing off to see the effect of what I have done. Clicking on the new link takes you to the first page in the OpenLearn content, providing further navigation links that allows you to access all the other resources.

One thing that should be noted is that you have not directly uploaded the resource into a directory on the web server that anyone can access to. Only people who have legitimate access rights can gain access to these files.

These approaches rely on content being downloaded from the OpenLearn site to Moodle. Are there any other ways to tell your students about the OpenLearn content through Moodle?

RSS

The final way that I will describe is through RSS (wikipedia). RSS is most commonly associated with blog syndication. RSS can be described as an XML data structure that contains links to interesting material. OpenLean also provide RSS Feeds to individual courses. If you take a copy of a RSS feed link, you can use it within other tools. One of those tools is Moodle.

Moodle can make use of activities, resources and blocks. Blocks are the pieces of functionality that can surround courses. Blocks can be added, deleted and moved around. One of the blocks that Moodle provides is an RSS block.

Using course I created earlier, I add a new block and paste in the RSS feed link that I gathered from the OpenLearn course, then ticked a tickbox and confirmed something. As if by magic, my new block was populated by the contents of the OpenLearn course I had just told it about.

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Clicking on one of these links takes you directly to the OpenLearn site, where you can access the material directly. The advantages of this approach is that you don't have to do very much, plus the material is always up to date.

There is an outstanding question that this section of the blog raises: could it be possible to create a Moodle activity (or resource?) called an 'RSS feed' that could be placed within the main body of a course? This way, educators could be able to quickly and efficiently group together different OpenLearn (or other forms of OER) resources. Furthermore, this would make it possible to group different 'blog reading or reviewing' activities together which may culminate in a forum discussion or even an on-line audio conference at a pre-arranged time. But here, I'm starting to digress...

Further information

After having completed (more or less) the first section in this post, I discovered an OpenLearn course entitled Re-using, Remixing and Creating Content. This provides further information about the different file types and how they can be manipulated.

Conclusions

There are a number of different ways to use OpenLearn content in Moodle. Each of them differ in terms of how much you have to do and how the end result appears. Taking a personal perspective, which one might be the best approach to use within my project?

What I want is flexibility: the ability to change a course and add an additional category of resource to the middle of it, should this be required. Since I'm going to be using Moodle as my main research tool, it makes sense to make use of the Moodle course format. I can then make use of the Moodle tools (should this be necessary) and move resources and sections around with relative ease.

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