1). What kind of theory of learning is offered by classic activity theory?
A single activity system unit that works upon an object and delivers an outcome
2). What are the five principles of current activity theory? According to Engeström:
- A collective, artifact-mediated and object-orientated activity system, seen in its network relations ot other activity systems, is taken as the prime unit of analysis.
- Multi-voicedness of activity systems. A community of multiple points of view, traditional and interests.
- Age and history
- Contradictions as sources of change and development - accumulating structural tensions within and between activity systems.
- The possibility of expansive transformations.
3). What is the problem with the ‘standard’ theories of learning that expansive learning addresses?
Standard theory equates to lasting behaviour change whereas expansive learning considers a sideways shift of the entire activity system.
created using Art Pad
I was thinking in terms of trying to boil two pans on water on one hob; the flames between the pans cause more conflict than harmony. Shift both pans to the left or right and the heat is under each activity rather than between them.
I'll get out a pad of paper and try some more of these.
4) What is the criticism that Engeström makes of the apprenticeship model of learning?
Doesn't permit the development of original thinking. (I disagree. It depends on the person you are apprenticed too. Think of the many great artists who learnt their craft under a great master, then broke loose).
In relation to e-learning or are we calling it technology-enhanced learning here I fully recognise the value of participation, letting go of your thoughts and therefore being one of these 'activity systems' so that a shared 'third object' (Engestrom, 2001) as it were, moves forward.
The best colloborative work is like this, my experience being those video production, often drama based, that require multiple inputs from people with very different, and specific talents.
I've gone on to try and express the Engestrom diagram in 3D, and drawing six activity systems ... i.e creating greater complexity to begin getting closer to the highly complex reality and in turn a different diagram/illustration entirely.
Engeström (2001) article, Expansive learning at work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualisation