'The way in which a problem (and our attempts to manage it) is perceived and described will inevitably constrain our thinking and action with respect to it.' (Henry et al. 2010:47)
N.B. Preferred personal style, experience, the culture you work in and the type of situation you are facing.
Activity 4.1. Free Association ideas. Gordon (1961)
Fig. 4.1. The Buffalo Creative problem-solving method
Synectics. Vincent Nolan (1989) The Innovator's Handbook.
Open up a problem, don't define it.
N.B. How well you chose to overcome the challenges it raises.
REF: Friend and Hickling.
'Simply using an electronic medium does not remove non-rational factors, nor the need for skilful communication or facilitation'. (2010:57)
'If a technique is a separate dish, and a method is a menu for a complete meal, then a 'framework' is the broad concept behind a given menu - the difference between creating a menu for a 'fast-food snack' a 'family celebration', or a 'slimmer's lunch', a 'romantic dinner', or whatever'. (2010:59)
Problem solving as:
Binary Judgements for actions. Nolan (1989)
Friend, J and Hickling, A (1997) Planning under Pressure (2nd edn)(Oxford: Buterworth-Heinemann.
Gordon, W.J.J. (1961) Synectics. New York, Harper & Row
Isaksen, S.G. and Treffinger, D.J. (1985) Creative Problem Solving: The Basic Course, Buffalo: Bearly LTD.
Nolan, V (1989) The Innovators' Handbook