Engestrom (2006) The idea of internal contradictions of change, with a model of learning activity based in horizontal, not vertical learning and 'knotworking' whereby the nodes and collective ownership of learning changes.
Learning that is top down and stems from:
Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)
Learning comes about from participation in culturally valued practices in which something useful is produced – though participation and acquisition alone cannot be enough to make major change. Engestrom (2006:61)
When it comes to learning on campus think about the 'hidden curriculum of what it means to be a student'. Bateston (1972)
Bateston (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind: collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution and epistomelogy. New York. Ballantine Books.
Engestrom Y, (2006) Learning by expanding. An activity theoretical approach to developmental research. Helsinki. Orienta–Konsultit.
Lave and Wenger (1991) Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge.
Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics for learning