Daniel (2012), Making sense of MOOCs: musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility, which provides a comprehensive review of MOOCs.
Daniel argues the point that MOOCs cannot really be considered as open if they charge, there are further criticisms. "In his book Harmonizing Global Education: from Genghis Khan to Facebook, Baggaley (2011) argues that the quality and pedagogy of much current online education is poor because its practitioners have not taken the trouble to learn the lessons from research on earlier educational technologies" (Daniel, 2012).
Baggaley, J. (2011). Harmonising Global Education: from Genghis Khan to Facebook. London and New York, Routledge
Kop (2011), The challenges to connectivist learning on open online networks: learning experiences during a massive open online course.
"A big difference between learning informally, both away from an educational institution and within one, is the level of intrinsic motivation that the learner has. There is clearly a much higher level of motivation that must stem from the self in an informal learning situation as some of the motivational factors in a formal context would more often than not be external, for example getting a qualification or learning a skill for the workplace" (Kop, 2011). This plays a part in indicating the high dropout rate.
Stacey (2013), The pedagogy of MOOCs.Dave Cormier describes the PLENK2010 course by referring to how it works. "The four types of activity are described as; 1. Aggregate, 2. Remix, 3. Repurpose, 4. Feed Forward" (Stacey, 2013).