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H817 week 12 activity 22

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Very briefly Copy paste from Wikipedia…

“YouTube is a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos.[4] The company is based in San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5 technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips, and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos.

Most of the content on YouTube has been uploaded by individuals, although media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, Hulu, and other organizations offer some of their material via the site, as part of the YouTube partnership program.[5] Unregistered users can watch videos, while registered users can upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos considered to contain potentially offensive content are available only to registered users at least 18 years old.”



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H817 week 12 activity 21

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Even though technology has gone a long way during the last decade pedagogy is the ‘juice’ of learning. Probably pedagogy is more important than technology but on the other hand technology can enhance pedagogy and can provide the means to reach groups that could not be reached before. These two can be related and support each other. Where pedagogy is missing technology can help to reach it.in my experience more emphasis is still given in pedagogy since teaching is being going on for years now whilst technology only for the last decade.


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H817 week 11 Activity 20

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Rhizomatic learning involves creating a context where anyone form different context can participate. The result would be change based on new understandings that have been integrated with other’s people knowledge. Network knowledge????.....

Permalink 1 comment (latest comment by Victoria Wright, Monday, 22 Apr 2013, 15:53)
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H817 week 11 activity 19

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  • ¥ Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.

Reading various opinions regarding a subject helps to form one’s own opinion.

  • ¥ Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.

Specialized I think is not the word here. Nodes can be connected in the process of learning.

  • ¥ Learning may reside in non-human appliances.

Can this be applicable?

  • ¥ Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known.

If you don’t have the capacity to know more then what is currently known might not be so useful


  • ¥ Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.

Yes if you learn through others!!!!

  • ¥ Ability to see connections between fields, ideas and concepts is a core skill.

If you are not able to see connections then what you have learned has no continuity.

  • ¥ Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

I don’t think so…..

Permalink 1 comment (latest comment by Victoria Wright, Thursday, 18 Apr 2013, 14:10)
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H817 week11 activity 17

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In my opinion the answer to both questions is quite similar.

No one doubts that there is abundance of information . What educators should do as well as students is to learn how to distinguish between good and bad recourses. May be this can be learned from previous examples from people who came across with load of information and managed to pick up the good ones. Social networks can be helpful but at the same time they can be confusing. Students need to be guided to select information and educators should have the training to guide students.

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H817 week 10 activity 15

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PLN is associated with PLE but it gets more personal. The tools and facilities or choices that help someone to connect with other people. Is like belonging to a community and form relationships in a variety of  time and places.  This interaction results in knowledge and professional development.

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H817 week 10 Activity 14

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Edited by Maria Leonidou, Sunday, 14 Apr 2013, 16:23



  • • Master the material
  • • Lectures are taught by professors
  • • Learn at own pace
  • • Test your knowledge
  • • Join a global community
  • • Courses are designed based on pedagogical foundations
  • • Use interactivity
  • • Provides feedback
  • • Extensive use of interactive exercises



  • • Use digital tools to tell ones story
  • • Stories can evolve interactively
  • • Requirement to built an online identity and narrate process throughout the fifteen week semester.
  • • Expected to open frame this process and interact with one another throughout the course as well as engage and interact with the world beyond as part of the development
  • • Develop skills in using technology
  • • You become both a practitioner and an interrogator




Coursera (2013) ‘Pedagogical Foundations’ [Online] Available from: https://www.coursera.org/about/pedagogy

(Accessed 14 April 2013)


ds106 (2013) ‘Welcome to ds106’ [Online] Available from: http://ds106.us/ (Accessed 14 April  2013)



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H817 week 10 activity 10

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I would not know about an advertising company and if the MOOC would be appropriate or if it can work. Maybe to share content and ideas. Time is one aspect in an advertising company where ideas have to put down. And if ideas are to be shared in a MOOC how can be a leading advertising company. I think a company occupied with advertising would not want others to see and learn about new ideas and projects. Most of the time is spend in finding new ideas, which are not to be Open or Massive but secret and use only once.

Permalink 1 comment (latest comment by Victoria Wright, Friday, 12 Apr 2013, 14:07)
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H817 week 9 activity 11

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  • • Broad cast
  • • High cost
  • • Large audience
  • • High compromise
  • • Require a large effort to reach the Audience



Small OER

  • • Invitation to participate
  • • Low cost. You don’t need to justify cost
  • • You don’t need specific projects to do it
  • • Small audience
  • • Reasonably open
  • • Low compromise
  • • Small but unpredictable audience
  • • High reuse potential
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H817 week 9 activity 10

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Outside contributors help to build the course






It is centrally controlled.  Own content. Large staff






Relies on educators to share their resources


Open Learn




Central funding is required, it is less formally structured.



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H817 Week 9, Activity 9

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Edited by Maria Leonidou, Thursday, 4 Apr 2013, 18:23


This is the license I would choose:





“This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and is recommended for materials that would benefit from incorporating content from Wikipedia and similarly licensed projects.” (Creative Commons)



About the licenses.  Creative Commons.



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Edited by Maria Leonidou, Sunday, 31 Mar 2013, 15:32

Even though there are some open content initiatives originating from developing countries (Wiley 2006, Johnstone 2005) the vast majority are produced by individuals, organizations or institutions from developed countries (Unwin 2005) and this is problematic. Some suggest that if open content should reach its full potential a global balance needs to be found where developing countries are not confined to being consumers of learning material but also producers (Albright 2005, Unwin 2005).


Language style relates to problems with e.g. slang, choice of words etc. The inhibiting factor for reuse here is not that the content is in a language not used in the education but rather that the style of language used makes the content hard to understand for the learner.

The factor translation means that the content is in a language not used in education and the content has to be translated before it can be used. Most of the open content is only available in English and the language problem is one of the greatest barriers to open content use in developing countries (Larson and Murray 2008).


Open content created for a specific context might be inappropriate or useless in another context. The relevance of the content concerns several layers, e.g. examples from developed countries may not be relevant for students originating from other cultures, the pedagogy used may not be appropriate, the level of the content may not be appropriate etc. (Mason 1999, Albright 2005, Unwin 2005, Selinger 2004).

Another issue is that open content do not fit the scope of the course. This does not only relate to the actual information of the content but also to how universities deliver the courses in term of sequence of lectures, technical platform used, graphical layout of the material etc. This is seen as problematic when the informants try to use open content that consists of a full lecture in their course. Part of the lecture may fit within the scope of the course but it does not fit as a whole.


Access problems concern issues with the availability of open content. Problems with open content are not the lack of available resources on Internet the problem is in finding suitable resources (Albright 2005, Unwin 2005, Larson and Murray 2008).

Technical Resources

Technical resources refers to infrastructural problems and lack of access to needed technology and is seen as a major hinder for reuse of open content (Larson and Murray 2008, Unwin 2005, Albright 2005). Just having access to Internet is often not enough though if you have poor bandwidth. This factor has two dimensions. First it is a problem for content developers to download content, resulting in content developers disregarding some resources. Secondly it is a problem when they create content to be used by students.

Quality can mean different things, the most obvious quality issue has to do with the actual content, is the information and knowledge distributed in the object correct? That content is “correct” does not necessarily mean that it is appropriate to use in every context. Poor information quality means the actual quality of the information provided in the content. This can however mean many things, e.g. the information is incorrect, the information is not coherent etc.


“Sustainability will be defined as an open educational resource project’s ongoing ability to meet its goals.” (Wiley 2007,p.5)Open educational resource projects must find two unique types of sustainability. First, they must find a way to sustain the production and sharing of open educational resources. Second, and of equal importance, they must find a way to sustain the use and reuse of their open educational resources by end users (whether teachers or learners).


Wiley, D., A (2006) The Current State of Open Educational Resources. 2008-09-04 http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/247

Johnstone, S. M. (2005) Open Educational Resources Serve the World. Educause Quarterly, 28, 3, 15-18.

Unwin, T. (2005) Towards a Framework for the Use of ICT in Teacher Training in Africa. Open Learning, 20, 113-130.

Albright, P. (2005) UNESCO (iiep): Final forum report. 2008-09-01 http://learn.creativecommons.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/oerforumfinalreport.pdf

Larson, R. C. & Murray, E. (2008) Open Educational Resources for Blended Learning in High Schools: Overcoming Impediments in Developing Countries. Journal for Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12, 85-103.

Mason, R. (1999) Global Education Fact or Fad? Keynote at The Digital Millenium Collaboration, Integration, Education. National University Telecommunication Network Conference Washinton.

Selinger, M. (2004) Cultural and Pedagogical Implications of a Global E-learning Programme. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34, 223-239.

Wiley David, 2007, “ On the Sustainability of Open Educational Resource Initiatives in Higher Education”

Hatakka Mathias, 2009, “ Build it and They will come?- Inhibiting factors for reuse of Open content in Developing countries”



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H817, week 8, activity 6

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Being able to share each other’s work is a way of forming new communities and meet people, where we can practice and engage in real collaboration. The Reusability Paradox (Wiley 2004) supports that as the module context is further elaborated and made more explicit the learner who works with the module has an easier understanding how this connects to what he or she already knows. “ The more context a learning object has, the more (and more easily) a learner can learn it.” (Wiley 2004,p.1). But to an instructional designer to be able to reuse learning object means placing it in a context other than that for which it was designed.  “ To make learning objects maximally reusable, learning objects should contain as little context as possible” (Wiley 2004, p.1). Therefore pedagogical effectiveness and potential for reuse are completely at odds with one another.

Standardization and specifications for e-learning technologies has been actively developed by many organizations such as the IMS Global E-Learning Consortium, the IEEF Learning Technologies Standards Committee and the ISO Subcommittee on “Information Technology for Learning Education and Training.” Since the emergence of the Internet innumerable courses has been developed is such a manner that it is sometimes impossible to support their interchange or their successful interoperations. “ Standards in e-learning seek to address these shortcomings by ensuring the interoperability, portability and reusability of this content and of these systems”  (Friesen, 2003,p.4).

SCORM seeks to accomplish e-standards by generating standards on its own, by simplifying, combining and interrelate them to a number of existing specifications and standards. (Friesen, 2003).


Reusability Paradox


Three objections to learning objects and e-learning standards



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Week 8 Activity 5

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Edited by Maria Leonidou, Tuesday, 26 Mar 2013, 15:42


Courses are expensive to be created due to design features since the material is made from scratch and this material is applied to a limited number of students who are taking the particular course. Designers should use the application of RAD (Rapid Application Design) where they can select and apply pre-defined routines from a menu of a programming environment. The essence of a learning object economy is the combination of a collection of learning objectives and collection of reusable leaning materials. Objects may be related to each other in many ways and the most common form of interaction is the containing interaction. In addition learning objects must use open standards in course construction that is it should be understood and used by everyone.


The IMS (Instructional Management Systems) Project is to “ promote the widespread adoption of Specifications that will allow distributed learning environments and content from multiple authors to work together” (Downes 2001). SCORM (Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model) describes in detail the object hierarchy in a ‘course and how objects’ methods which can be recalled, predefined functions are defined. There is a common language adopted by IMS and SCOEM and is adopted by database programmers, librariansm and designers around the world. A learning object may be a map, a webpage and interactive application or an online video anything that may be contained inside a course. “ There are two major facets to authoring learning objects. The first is the content of the learning object… and the second is the metadata describing the learning object”. (Downes 2001)



Downes (2001) Learning objcets: resources for distance education worldwide.



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Week 7 Activity 4

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Edited by Maria Leonidou, Tuesday, 26 Mar 2013, 12:55


My three choices are:

Accreditation: I think that if learners are going to spend time in MOOC and complete exercises then they have the need to get some form of accreditation.

Sustainability: Will I be sure when I start an OER course that it will be sustained and funded?

Support: Will I be supported through the course or guided in some way in terms of completing activities or engaging in technology?


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Edited by Maria Leonidou, Wednesday, 20 Mar 2013, 19:56


I am Maria Leonidou and I am currently studying H817 with the OU.

I write this post as a test for the MOOC

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